Grape Science Center

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Grape Nutrition Resources

Grape Nutrition Resources

Grape Education Materials

Research continues to show that, as part of a balanced diet, Concord and Niagara grapes are natural sources of goodness to support a healthy lifestyle. Learn more about how the plant nutrients in Concord and Niagara grapes pack a nutrition punch with these resources:

Whole Truth About 100% Fruit Juice: For Health Professionals

Research shows – and experts agree – that moderate consumption of 100% fruit juice can be part of a healthy diet, help people meet their daily goals for fruit intake, and provide key nutrients to support a healthy lifestyle.

For the latest science on 100% juice, download The Whole Truth About 100% Fruit Juice, a Health Professional Educational Tool.

This tool is also available on Nutrition411.com.

Continuing Education for Health Professionals

Registered Dietitians and Dietetic Technicians, Registered (RDs and DTRs) seeking to learn more about the power of Concord grapes and the latest in grape research can take part in this self-study educational opportunity. By reviewing this module, RDs and DTRs are eligible to earn one free continuing professional education unit toward their credentialing, per the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR). To do so, please follow these steps:

  1. Download and review the Power of the Grape presentation.
  2. Take the quiz and check your answers.
  3. Print and fill out the CDR-approved certificate of completion and save for your files.

Health & Nutrition Links

Please visit these websites for additional research and resources on the role of nutrition in helping support overall health – including the role of fruit, such as grapes and 100% grape juice, in a healthy diet:

Guide to Navigating Research Studies

The definition of scientific research is performing a methodical study in order to prove a theory or answer a question. The following is a brief overview of different types of research used in health and nutrition exploration 1:

Case-Control Study
Clinical Study
Cohort Study
Cross-Sectional Study
Observational Study
Pilot Study
Preclinical or Laboratory Studies
Randomized Controlled Trials

Reference:

1. Hulley SB, Cummings SR, Browner WS, Grady D, Hearst N, Newman TB. Designing Clinical Research: An Epidemiologic Approach. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.


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An observational study, usually a retrospective study (a study that looks backward in time) that compares two groups of people: 1) those with the specific condition (e.g., disease) being studied (cases) and, 2) a similar group of people without that condition (controls). Researchers compare these two groups of people and important characteristics, such as certain lifestyle choices, to determine what factors may be associated with the condition under investigation.

A type of study that often includes patients with specific health conditions who could benefit from receiving a new treatment. These studies can also be performed in healthy subjects. The end goal of a clinical study (also called clinical research or clinical trial) is to determine effectiveness and safety of a health intervention in humans.

An observational study, usually prospective (looking forward), that follows a group of similar people over time. The goal is to determine which factors and exposures affect the development of a specific outcome or health condition (e.g., disease) during the study’s time period.

A type of observational study, often given as a survey, that examines a group of subjects during a single occasion, or over a very short period of time. This type of study aims to describe the relationship between health-related conditions (e.g., metabolic syndrome, hypertension) and other factors that exist in the general population (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity levels), during a particular time period.

A type of study in which researchers simply observe subjects and measure the associations between certain characteristics (e.g., fruit/vegetable intake) and specific outcomes (e.g., obesity). Examples of observational studies include case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies. While these studies gather important information, they cannot prove that a specific treatment or factor affects health.

A small scale, preliminary study that is conducted to determine the potential for a larger study.

A stage of research that often occurs prior to trials involving humans. This type of research can help determine mechanisms of action of a treatment, or how the treatment is causing the effect, as well as help ensure the safety of treatment in subsequent human trials.

In vitro
Testing performed in a controlled environment, such as a test tube or a Petri dish, instead of living organisms. In vitro literally means "within the glass" in Latin.

Ex vivo
These experiments are performed on tissue (e.g., animal or human cells) taking place outside of the organism, such as in a laboratory setting. In Latin, this means "out of the living."

In vivo
These tests are done on whole, living organisms. Technically, animal and human testing are two forms of in vivo research, which means "within the living." These experiments may be performed outside of a laboratory setting.

A study designed to provide the most credible information about the cause and effects of treatment. These types of studies are recognized as unbiased because they involve the random assignment of treatments to subjects being studied.

Bias
The tendency throughout any stage of research to generate findings that may not reflect "true values." In clinical trials, researchers try to avoid many kinds of bias, including selection by randomizing subjects, measurement by creating placebos and performing blind trials, and confounding by carefully designing the study and analyzing the findings.

Blind
Study in which subjects do not know whether they receive the treatment or the placebo, which assists in prevention of bias. Double-blinded studies are a higher level of scientific rigor because neither the participants nor the investigators know who is receiving the treatment or the placebo. A double-blind crossover study means each participant undergoes both the treatment and control scenario, typically with a wash-out period in between.

Placebo-controlled
Study that allows researchers to isolate the effect size of the treatment by comparing a group given a simulated treatment (e.g., grape flavored drink) to those with the real treatment (e.g., Concord grape juice), which reduces measurement bias. The placebo should match as closely as possible to the treatment without containing the active ingredients.

Randomized
Study involving participants who are randomly assigned to either the treatment or the placebo group, reducing selection bias.